Earthwork Design

Excavation, Rock Cuts and Slope Design

  • Major Earthworks are Mainly Based on the Geological Nature and Proposed Project Master Plan Relationship.
  • Excavation Machinery Depends Mainly on Types of Overburden and Bedrock, Until Reaching the Target (Final Design) Grading Level.
  • Continuous Cut and Fill Operations, Using Certain Retaining Walls and Slope Stabilization Procedures.
  • Recommended General slope, to be Left Permanently Without Using any Retaining Wall and Slope Stabilization Procedures [X Horizontal : Y Vertical] Depends Mainly on Both Types of Overburden and Bedrock and Local Discontinuities Planes/Layer Dipping.
  • Sand and Gravel Deposits and Other Surfacial Fills can be Mechanically Excavated Using Wheel Loaders and Shovels.
  • Basalt, Sandstone, Sandy Dolomite/Dolomitic Limestone and Claystone can be Mechanically Excavated Using Jack Hammers or Ribbing Tractors
  • Clayey/Silty Layers can be Mechanically Excavated Using Wheel Dozers.
  • Use of Expandable Chemicals within Natural Open-tensional Joints Could Accelerate Such Mechanical Excavation.
  • Pre-splitting is recommended in case of shaping of rock cut slopes for mass production.
  • Rock Cuts Should be Selected in the Favorable Directions to Avoid the Rock Sliding/Falling Along Discontinuities Planes/Layer Dipping (Bedding Directions/Attitudes, Joint Surfaces and Fault Traces).

Foundation Stabilization

  • Since the Project Involves the Construction of Relatively Light-weight Residential and Recreational Engineered Concrete Structures (Villa, Townhouse, Twinhous and Apartment-like Buildings and Services). Stability of their Shallow-seated Foundations is Primarily Controlled By Both the Type and Quality of the Foundation Soil/Rock Types Which Defines the Foundation Type/Depth and Bearing Capacity and the Subsurface Soil/Rock Profile which Defines Structure Stability, Type and Extent of the Soil/Rock Treatment/Replacement.


Protection Against Rock Fall/Slide

  • Vacant Areas with Natural Slopes, Left Without either Excavation or Backfilling Works, Should be Safely Stabilized, to Secure Engineered Concrete Structures on Lower Levels from Rock Sliding/Falling, Via: 1) Clearing from Any Loose and Jointed Large-scale Rock Blocks, 2) Slope Trimming or Using Rock Bolting or Anchors with Several Concrete Shots, If Needed, 3) Establishing Frontal Steel Fences or Sand Cushions to Trap Rock Falling Pieces/Debris.

Earthquakes and Seismicity Hazards

Estimated Peak Ground Accelerations (PGA) or Design Basis Earthquake Ground Motion(DBEGM) All Around the Project Area and Its Seismicity Order Which has a Low/Moderate/Strong/Very Strong Perceived Shaking and Potential Damage.